Areas of Expertise
- Political Psychology
- Stereotyping, Prejudice & Discrimination
- Research Methods
- Social Psychology
- Hate Crime
- Unconscious Social Cognition
- Racial Profiling
Jack Glaser received his Ph.D. in psychology from Yale University in 1999 and joined the faculty of the Goldman School in 2000. He is a social psychologist whose primary research interest is in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. He studies these intergroup biases at multiple levels of analysis. For example, he investigates the unconscious operation of stereotypes and prejudice using computerized reaction time methods, and is investigating the implications of such subtle forms of bias in law enforcement. In particular, he is interested in racial profiling, especially as it relates to the psychology of stereotyping, and the self-fulfilling effects of such stereotype-based discrimination. Additionally, Professor Glaser has conducted research on a very extreme manifestation of intergroup bias - hate crime - and has carried out analyses of historical data as well as racist rhetoric on the Internet to challenge assumptions about economic predictors of intergroup violence. Another area of interest is in electoral politics and political ideology, specifically the role of emotion (as experienced and expressed) in politics. Professor Glaser is working with the Center for Policing Equity as one of the principal investigators on a National Science Foundation- and Google-funded project to build a National Justice Database of police stops and use of force incidents.
- UC Berkeley Department of Psychology
- Center for Policing Equity
- Center for the Study of Law & Society, UC Berkeley
- Institute of Personality and Social Research, UC Berkeley
- Jack Glaser's Personal Webpage
- Video of April 15 Panel on Unconscious Bias and Policing (moderated by Professor Glaser)
- Discussing Suspect Race with P. Figueroa and H. Brady
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Glaser, J., Martin, K.D, & Kahn, K.B. (2015). Possibility of death sentence has divergent effect on verdicts for Black and White defendants. Law & Human Behavior.
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Glaser, J. (2014). Suspect Race: Causes and Consequences of Racial Profiling. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Glaser, J., Spencer, K.B., & Charbonneau, A. (2014). Racial bias and public policy. Policy Insights from Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 88-94.
Glaser, J., & Finn, C. (2013). How and why implicit attitudes should affect voting. PS: Political Science and Politics, 46, 537-544.
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Hackney, A., & Glaser, J. (2013). Reverse deterrence in racial profiling: Increased transgressions by non-profiled Whites. Law & Human Behavior, 37, 348-353.
A controlled experiment tested the possibility that racial profiling— disproportionate scrutiny of a minority racial group by sanctioned authorities—would have a “reverse deterrent” effect on the illicit behavior of members of a nonprofiled majority group. Research participants given a task involving extremely difficult anagrams were given the opportunity to cheat. White participants randomly assigned to a condition in which two Black confederates were obtrusively singled out for scrutiny by the study administrator cheated more than Whites in a White-profiling condition and a no-profiling control condition, and more than Black participants in all three conditions. Black participants cheated at comparable levels across the three experimental conditions. The effect of the profiling of Blacks was consequently a net increase in cheating. The results indicate that racial profiling may be counterproductive.
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Martin, K.D., & Glaser, J. (2012). The indefensible problems with racial profiling. In J. Gans (Ed.), Society and Culture: Debates on Immigration. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Finn, C., & Glaser, J. (2010). Voter affect and the 2008 U.S. presidential election: Hope and race really mattered. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy.
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The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore
Jost, J.T., Rudman, L., Blair, I.V., Carney, D.R., Dasgupta, N., Glaser, J., & Hardin, C. (2009). The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore. Research in Organizational Behavior, 29, 39-69.
In this article, we respond at length to recent critiques of research on implicit bias, especially studies using the Implicit
Association Test (IAT). Tetlock and Mitchell (2009) claim that ‘‘there is no evidence that the IAT reliably predicts class-wide
discrimination on tangible outcomes in any setting,’’ accuse their colleagues of violating ‘‘the injunction to separate factual from
value judgments,’’ adhering blindly to a ‘‘statist interventionist’’ ideology, and of conducting a witch-hunt against implicit racists,
sexists, and others. These and other charges are specious. Far from making ‘‘extraordinary claims’’ that ‘‘require extraordinary
evidence,’’ researchers have identiﬁed the existence and consequences of implicit bias through well-established methods based
upon principles of cognitive psychology that have been developed in nearly a century’s worth of work. We challenge the blanket
skepticism and organizational complacency advocated by Tetlock and Mitchell and summarize 10 recent studies that no manager
(or managerial researcher) should ignore. These studies reveal that students, nurses, doctors, police ofﬁcers, employment recruiters,
and many others exhibit implicit biases with respect to race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, social status, and other distinctions.
Furthermore—and contrary to the emphatic assertions of the critics—participants’ implicit associations do predict socially and
organizationally signiﬁcant behaviors, including employment, medical, and voting decisions made by working adults.
# 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Glaser, J., & Knowles, E.D. (2008). Implicit motivation to control prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 164-172.
This research examines whether spontaneous, unintentional discriminatory behavior can be moderated by an implicit (nonconscious) motivation to control prejudice. We operationalize implicit motivation to control prejudice (IMCP) in terms of an implicit negative attitude toward prejudice (NAP) and an implicit belief that oneself is prejudiced (BOP). In the present experiment, an implicit stereotypic association of Blacks (vs. Whites) with weapons was positively correlated with the tendency to “shoot” armed Black men faster than armed White men (the “Shooter Bias”) in a computer simulation. However, participants relatively high in implicit negative attitude toward prejudice showed no relation between the race-weapons stereotype and the shooter bias. Implicit belief that oneself is prejudiced had no direct eVect on this relation, but the interaction of NAP and BOP did. Participants who had a strong association between self and prejudice (high BOP) but a weak association between prejudice and bad (low NAP) showed the strongest relation between the implicit race-weapons stereotype and the Shooter Bias, suggesting that these individuals freely employed their stereotypes in their behavior.
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Park, S.H., Glaser, J., & Knowles, E.D. (2008). Implicit motivation to control prejudice moderates the effect of cognitive depletion on unintended discrimination. Social Cognition, 26, 379-398.
The role of Implicit motivation to Control prejudice (ImCp) in moderating
the effect of resource depletion on spontaneous discriminatory behavior
was examined. Cognitive resource depletion was manipulated by having
participants solve either difficult or easy anagrams. A “Shooter Task” measuring unintended racial discriminatory behavior followed. participants
then reported their subjective experiences in the task. Finally, ImCp and
an implicit race-weapons stereotype were measured, both using Go/no-go
Association Tasks (GnATs). ImCp moderated the effect of depletion on discriminatory behavior: depletion resulted in more racial bias in the Shooter
Task only for those who scored low in our measure of ImCp, while high
ImCp participants performed comparably in both the low and high depletion conditions.
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Glaser, J. (2006). The efficacy and effect of racial profiling: A mathematical simulation approach. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 25, 395-416.
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Jost, J. T., Glaser, J., Sulloway, F., & Kruglanski, A.W. (2003). Political conservatism as motivated social cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 339-375.
Analyzing political conservatism as motivated social cognition integrates theories of personality (authoritarianism, dogmatism–intolerance of ambiguity), epistemic and existential needs (for closure,
regulatory focus, terror management), and ideological rationalization (social dominance, system justification). A meta-analysis (88 samples, 12 countries, 22,818 cases) confirms that several psychological
variables predict political conservatism: death anxiety (weighted mean r .50); system instability (.47);
dogmatism–intolerance of ambiguity (.34); openness to experience (–.32); uncertainty tolerance (–.27);
needs for order, structure, and closure (.26); integrative complexity (–.20); fear of threat and loss (.18);
and self-esteem (–.09). The core ideology of conservatism stresses resistance to change and justification
of inequality and is motivated by needs that vary situationally and dispositionally to manage uncertainty
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Glaser, J., Dixit, S., & Green, D. P. (2002). Studying hate crime with the Internet: What makes racists advocate racial violence. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 177-193.
We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 participants in White racist Internet chat rooms, examining the extent to which people would, in this unique environment, advocate interracial violence in response to purported economic and cultural threats. Capitalizing on the anonymity and candor of chat room interactions, this study provides an unusual perspective on extremist attitudes. We experimentally manipulated the nature and proximity of the threats. Qualitative and quantitative analyses indicate that the respondents were most threatened by interracial marriage and, to a lesser extent, Blacks moving into White neighborhoods. In contrast, job competition posed by Blacks evoked very little advocacy of violence. The study affords an assessment of the advantages and limitations of Internet-based research with clandestine populations.
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Glaser, J. & Banaji, M.R. (1999). When fair is foul and foul is fair: Reverse priming in automatic evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 669-687.
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Glaser, J. & Salovey, P. (1998). Affect in electoral politics. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 156-172.
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Green, D.P., Glaser, J., & Rich, A. (1998). From lynching to gay-bashing: The elusive connection between economic conditions and hate crime. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 82-92.
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Articles and Op-Eds
Greater Good Magazine, May 28, 2015
Berkeley Blog, December 22, 2014
San Francisco Chronicle, December 19, 2014
St. Louis Post Dispatch, August 21, 2014
Alternet, September 28, 2003
Alternet, July 16, 2003
San Francisco Chronicle, November 29, 2001
KPCC (NPR) Southern California, August 3, 2017
KTVU News San Francisco, July 3, 2017
NBC News, June 23, 2017
WIRED, June 13, 2017
CNN Digital, June 5, 2017
CNN Digital, May 27, 2017
WIRED, February 8, 2017
Christian Science Monitor, January 14, 2017
Los Angeles Times, January 11, 2017
CNN, December 20, 2016
Policing in Black & White: Police departments are eager for ways to reduce racial disparities—and psychological research is beginning to find answers
APA Monitor, December 1, 2016
KTVU SF News, November 22, 2016
Coded and Loaded: How Politicians Talk About Race and Gender Without Really Talking About Race and Gender
California Magazine, September 21, 2016
Washington Post -- The Fix, September 20, 2016
Washington Post WonkBlog, August 12, 2016
ABC National Radio Australia, August 10, 2016
Scientific American, July 22, 2016
Devex, July 20, 2016
KQED TV NewsRoom, July 15, 2016
Buzzfeed, July 13, 2016
WCCO CBS News Radio Minneapolis, July 13, 2016
PBS NewsHour, July 9, 2016
Time Magazine, July 8, 2016
KTVU San Francisco Channel 2 News, December 4, 2015
SF Chronicle, November 28, 2015
Scientific American Mind, November 1, 2015
Free Speech Radio News, October 13, 2015
LA Times, October 5, 2015
Des Moines Register, August 18, 2015
Des Moines Register, August 17, 2015
CJAD 800 AM Canada, July 11, 2015
SF Chronicle, June 24, 2015
Radio Times on WHYY Philadelphia (NPR), June 22, 2015
SF Gate, June 4, 2015
IdeaStream (WCPN -- NPR Cleveland, OH), May 12, 2015
USA Today, March 31, 2015
The Arizona Republic, February 6, 2015
UCTV Public Policy Channel, February 2, 2015
CityLab (from The Atlantic), January 28, 2015
Radio Times on WHYY Philadelphia (NPR), January 8, 2015
KQED Radio (NPR), November 25, 2014
California Magazine, November 25, 2014
The Bell Curve, November 18, 2014
KALW Radio (NPR), September 29, 2014
Professor Glaser quoted on AZ Governor Brewer's veto of a "religious freedom" law that would have enabled businesses to discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation.
The Arizona Republic, March 2, 2014
Release, September 14, 2013
Discovery.com, August 9, 2013
Professor Glaser featured in CPTV documentary on racial disparities in juvenile justice: 'The Color of Justice.'
CPTV, April 17, 2013
KGO Radio interview on intergroup contact and attitudes toward same sex marriage, in the context of the Supreme Court, March 25, 2013.
KGO Radio, March 19, 2013
KALW Radio, May 29, 2012
Reuters, January 16, 2012
Alaska Dispatch, January 15, 2012
Thomson/Reuters news service, January 14, 2012
ProPublica Dec. 9, 2011 article on racial disparities in Presidential pardons, segment on "What can be done?"
ProPublica, December 3, 2011
ProPublica Dec. 3, 2011 article on racial disparities in Presidential pardons, "in their words" section
ProPublica, November 27, 2011
Washington Times, November 1, 2011
Miller-McCune, October 21, 2011
Minnesota Public Radio, February 2, 2011
Wisconsin Public Radio, Kathleen Dunn Show on The Arizona shooting and civil discourse in America, January 11, 2011
Wisconsin Public Radio, January 5, 2011
San Jose Mercury News, December 11, 2010
KQED, December 4, 2010
New York Times, September 24, 2010
APA Monitor, August 26, 2010
AllPsychologyCareers, August 9, 2010
KGO Radio (AM 810) - News interview on the persistence of prejudice (starting at 9:40), July 30, 2009
KGO Radio, July 24, 2009
Politics Daily, June 25, 2009
SF Chronicle, April 3, 2009
New York Times, February 26, 2009
CNN, February 20, 2009
Washington Times, February 11, 2009
LA Times, October 26, 2008
Reno Gazzette-Journal, October 26, 2008
SF Chronicle, October 22, 2008
ABC7 News, October 10, 2008
Reno-Gazzette-Journal, September 25, 2008
KCBS Radio interview: Is Joe the Plumber really average? (Note that text of parts of interview were poorly transcribed.)
KCBS, August 26, 2008
Berkeleyan, August 21, 2008
Wired, August 4, 2008
Reno Gazzette-Journal, July 26, 2008
Denver Post, December 26, 2007
ABC News, October 15, 2007
KQED, September 7, 2007
Minneapolis Star-Tribune, August 26, 2007
Psychology Today, December 26, 2006
Toronto Star, October 16, 2006
SF Chronicle, September 8, 2006
SF Chronicle, July 26, 2006
Surreal Politics: How Anxiety About Race, Gender and Inequality is Shaping the Presidential Campaign
Sarah Anzia, Henry E. Brady, Jack Glaser, Jonathan Stein, Maria Echaveste (Moderator)
Date: October 5, 2016 Duration: 56 minutes
Jack Glaser, Paul Figueroa, Henry E. Brady
Date: February 2, 2015 Duration: 54 minutes
New Book: Suspect Race
Suspect Race: Causes and Consequences of Racial Profiling released December 5, 2014