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Working Paper Series

Certified to migrate: Property rights and migration in rural Mexico


  • Alain de Janvry, Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley
  • Kyle Emerick, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California Berkeley
  • Marco Gonzalez-Navarro, Center for Industrial Relations and Human Resources, University of Toronto.
  • Elisabeth Sadoulet, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California Berkeley


  • Goldman School of Public Policy Working Paper (November 2012)


Improving security of tenure over agricultural land has recently been the focus of a number of large land certification programs. While the main justification for these efforts was to increase productive investments and facilitate land rental transactions, we show that if access rights were tied to actual land use in the previous regime, these programs can also lead to increased outmigration from agrarian communities. We analyze the Mexican ejido land certification program which, from 1993 to 2006, awarded ownership certificates to 3.6 million farmers on about half the country’s agricultural land. Using the program rollout over time and space as an identification strategy, we show that households obtaining land certificates were 30% more likely to have a migrant member. The effect was larger for households with ex-ante weaker property rights and with larger off-farm opportunities. At the community level, certificates led to a 4% reduction in population. We show evidence of certificates leading to sorting, with larger farmers staying and land-poor farmers leaving in high productivity areas. We use satellite imagery to determine that, on average, cultivated land was not reduced because of the program, consistent with increases in agricultural labor productivity. Furthermore, in high productivity areas, the certification program led to an increase in cultivated land compared to low productivity areas.

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Last updated on 06/07/2013