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Selected Publications

  • Hedging Housing Risk

    Englund, Peter, Min Hwang, and John M. Quigley. “Hedging Housing Risk.” Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics (2002).

  • Comparing Micro and Macro Rationality

    MacCoun, R. (2002). Comparing micro and macro rationality. In M. V. Rajeev Gowda and Jeffrey Fox (Eds.), Judgments, decisions, and public policy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • An Analysis of the Definition of Mental Illness Used in State Parity Laws

    Peck, M.C., and R.M. Scheffler. “An Analysis of the Definition of Mental Illness Used in State Parity Laws.” Psychiatric Services 53.9 (Sep. 2002): 1089-1095.

    Thirty-four states have enacte mental health parity laws that require a health plan, insurer, or employer to provide coverage for mental illness equal to that for physical illness. This study analyzed definitions of mental illness used in state parity laws, identified factors influencing the development of these definitions, and examined the effects of different definitions on access to care for persons with mental illness.

    METHODS: Specific language in each state's parity legislation was analyzed. Interviews were conducted with policy makers, mental health providers, advocates, and insurers to determine factors influencing a state's definition. Current definitions of mental illness used in the clinical literature and in federal policy were reviewed and compared with definitions used in state parity laws.

    RESULTS: The definitions of mental illness used in state parity legislation vary significantly and fall into one of three major categories: “broad-based mental illness,” “serious mental illness,” or “biologically based mental illness.” To define each of these categories, state legislatures do not rely on clinically accepted definitions or federal mental health policy. Rather, influenced by political and economic factors, they are developing their own definitions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Definitions of mental illness in state parity laws have important implications for access, cost, and reimbursement; they determine which populations receive a higher level of mental health services. Future research must qualitatively examine how state definitions affect the use and cost of mental health services.

  • Variation in Routine Psychiatric Workload: The Role of Financing Source, Managed Care Participation

    Pingitore, D.P., R.M. Scheffler, D. Schwalm, D.A. Zarin, and J.C. West. “Variation in Routine Psychiatric Workload: The Role of Financing Source, Managed Care Participation and Mental Health Workforce Competition.” Mental Health Services Research 4.3 (Sep. 2002): 141-50.

    This study was conducted to examine the association between psychiatrists' demographic characteristics, payment source, and managed care participation and psychiatrists' practice workload, and between the supply of other mental health providers in a psychiatrist's county of practice and psychiatrists' practice workload. Data from the 1996 American Psychiatric Association National Survey of Psychiatric Practice were merged with national countywide measures of mental health workforce and environmental data from the 1996 Area Resource File. In comparison to male psychiatrists, female psychiatrists treat fewer patients per week, provide less total hours of weekly patient care, and obtain fewer new monthly referrals. An increase in psychiatrists' managed care participation was associated with only minor increases in the number of patients per week, weekly time spent in clinical care, and number of new monthly referrals. The supply of other mental health providers was not associated with variation in practice workload. Once psychiatrists participate in managed care plans, an increase in their participation rate does not significantly expand clinical practice workload. The supply of other mental health providers was not significantly associated with variation in psychiatrists' workload, which suggests that substitution effects may not be evident with this aspect of psychiatric practice.

  • Comparisons of Psychiatrists and Psychologists in Clinical Practice

    Pingitore, D.P., R.M. Scheffler, and T. Sentell. “Comparisons of Psychiatrists and Psychologists in Clinical Practice.” Psychiatric Services 53.8 (Aug. 2002): 977-983.

    OBJECTIVE:  The authors compared data from psychiatrists and psychologists in California to determine whether long-standing differences in clinical practice remain after the introduction of managed care and other changes in mental service delivery.

    METHODS: Responses from practicing clinicians in California who participated in the 1998 National Survey of Psychiatric Practice and the 2000 California Survey of Psychological Practice were compared on items related to patient caseload, practice profile, and insurance or reimbursement arrangements.

    RESULTS: Data from 97 psychiatrists and 395 psychologists were available for the study. Psychiatrists reported spending more hours on most aspects of practice and working more total hours per week than psychologists. The weekly caseloads reported by psychiatrists included a greater percentage of persons treated for psychotic conditions than did the caseloads of psychologists. Psychologists reported that their weekly caseloads included a greater percentage of persons treated for anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and other disorders. Psychiatrists reported receiving a greater average payment for services from public insurance, and psychologists reported treating a greater average percentage of patients who did not have insurance coverage. Significant differences in income sources and fee arrangements were observed, and the net reported income of psychiatrists was nearly 80 percent greater than that of psychologists.

    CONCLUSIONS: Long-standing differences in clinical practice patterns remain between psychiatrists and psychologists despite managed care staffing arrangements and treatment strategies that streamline the practices of both provider groups. The significant income and wage differences between psychiatrists and psychologists may be partly due to supply dynamics of the mental health workforce that adversely affect psychologists.

  • Comparisons of Psychiatrists and Psychologists in Clinical Practice

    Pingitore, D.P., R.M. Scheffler, and T. Sentell. “Comparisons of Psychiatrists and Psychologists in Clinical Practice.Psychiatric Services 53.8 (Aug. 2002): 977-983.

    OBJECTIVE: The authors compared data from psychiatrists and psychologists in California to determine whether long-standing differences in clinical practice remain after the introduction of managed care and other changes in mental service delivery.

    METHODS: Responses from practicing clinicians in California who participated in the 1998 National Survey of Psychiatric Practice and the 2000 California Survey of Psychological Practice were compared on items related to patient caseload, practice profile, and insurance or reimbursement arrangements.

    RESULTS: Data from 97 psychiatrists and 395 psychologists were available for the study. Psychiatrists reported spending more hours on most aspects of practice and working more total hours per week than psychologists. The weekly caseloads reported by psychiatrists included a greater percentage of persons treated for psychotic conditions than did the caseloads of psychologists. Psychologists reported that their weekly caseloads included a greater percentage of persons treated for anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and other disorders. Psychiatrists reported receiving a greater average payment for services from public insurance, and psychologists reported treating a greater average percentage of patients who did not have insurance coverage. Significant differences in income sources and fee arrangements were observed, and the net reported income of psychiatrists was nearly 80 percent greater than that of psychologists.

    CONCLUSIONS: Long-standing differences in clinical practice patterns remain between psychiatrists and psychologists despite managed care staffing arrangements and treatment strategies that streamline the practices of both provider groups. The significant income and wage differences between psychiatrists and psychologists may be partly due to supply dynamics of the mental health workforce that adversely affect psychologists.

  • The Impact of “No Opinion’ Response Options on Data Quality-Non Attitude Reduction or an Invitation

    Krosnick, J.A., et al. 2002.  'The Impact of “No Opinion' Response Options on Data Quality-Non Attitude Reduction or an Invitation to Satisfice?” Public Opinion Quarterly 66: 371-403.

    According to many seasoned survey researchers, offering a no-opinion option should reduce the pressure to give substantive responses felt by respondents who have no true opinions. By contrast, the survey satisficing perspective suggests that no-opinion options may discourage some respondents from doing the cognitive work necessary to report the true opinions they do have. We address these arguments using
    data from nine experiments carried out in three household surveys. Attraction to no-opinion options was found to be greatest among respondents lowest in cognitive skills (as measured by educational attainment), among respondents answering secretly instead of orally, for questions asked later in a survey, and among respondents who devoted little effort to the reporting process. The quality of attitude reports obtained (as measured by over-time consistency and responsiveness to a question manipulation) was not compromised by the omission of noopinion options. These results suggest that inclusion of no-opinion options in attitude measures may not enhance data quality and instead may
    preclude measurement of some meaningful opinions.

  • Public Schools, Private Resources: The Role of Social Networks in California Charter School Reform

    Janelle Scott and Jennifer Jellison Holme. 2002. Where Charter School Policy Fails: The Problems of Accountability and Equity. 102-128.