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Selected Publications

  • Agronomics and Sustainability of Transgenic Cotton in Argentina

    Qaim, Matin, Eugenio Cap, and Alain de Janvry. 2003. “Agronomics and Sustainability of Transgenic Cotton in Argentina”. AgBioForum 6(1&2): 41-47.

    Bt cotton was among the first transgenic crops to be used in commercial agriculture. A gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been transferred to the cotton genome. This gene codes for production of a protein that is toxic to the cotton bollworm, a severe insect pest in most cotton-growing regions of the world. In the United States and China, Bt cotton was commercialized in the mid-1990s, and today, the technology covers around 30-40% of the cotton area in both countries. Recent studies demonstrate that US and Chinese Bt adopters realize significant pesticide and cost savings (Carpenter et al., 2002; Pray, Huang, Hu, & Rozelle, 2002). Benefits of Bt cotton have also been reported for South Africa (Shankar & Thirtle, 2003) and Mexico (Traxler, Godoy-Avila, Falck-Zepeda, & Espinoza-Arellan, 2001). Nonetheless, there is still uncertainty related to the technologyís impacts and sustainability under different agroecological and socioeconomic conditions. This article analyzes the implications of Bt cotton in Argentina, where the technology was commercialized by Monsanto in 1998. Unlike other Bt-growing countries, where cotton is a heavily subsidized crop, Argentina is producing under free-trade conditions, with comparatively low input intensities and production costs. This might influence the technologyís agronomic outcome. Apart from a comparative analysis of pesticide use and yields with and without Bt, productivity effects are modeled econometrically using a damage control specification. This analysis is based on a comprehensive survey of Argentine cotton farmers in 2001 done jointly with Argentinaís National Institute for Farming and Livestock Technology (INTA). Although short-run gains of the technology are increasingly recognized (Qaim & Zilberman, 2003), long-run effects associated with pest resistance remain in doubt. We address this issue by using biological models to simulate possible resistance development in bollworm populations. Although resistance buildup has not been observed in the field so far, biochemical studies indicate a high risk of rapid insect adaptation to the Bt toxin (Gould, 1998). Resistance development is one of the main concerns of environmentalists with respect to Bt crops. It would not only challenge the technologyís sustainability, but would also imply loss of Bt as an ecologically friendly microbial insecticide that is widely used in organic agriculture.

  • The Occupational Transformation of the Mental Health System

    Scheffler, R., and P. Kirby. “The Occupational Transformation of the Mental Health System.” Health Affairs 22.5 (Sep. 2003): 177-188.

    The mental health workforce has changed dramatically since the mid-1970s. Nonphysician providers, particularly psychologists and clinical social workers, have become a much larger share of the workforce. While the supply of psychiatrists has been relatively stable, there has been a dramatic increase in the supply of psychologists and social workers. Changes in clinical practice, combined with the continued expansion of managed care into mental health, will largely determine the future composition and supply of the mental health workforce.

  • Research on Drugs-Crime Linkages: The Next Generation

    MacCoun, R., Kilmer, B., & Reuter, P. (2003, September). Research on drug-crime linkages: The next generation (commissioned paper). In Toward a drugs and crime research agenda for the 21st century. National Institute of Justice Special Report.

  • Symbolism and Incommensurability in Civil Sanctioning: Decision-Makers as Goal Managers

    Robbennolt, J. K., Darley, J. M., & MacCoun, R. J. (2003). Symbolism and incommensurability in civil sanctioning: Decision-makers as goal managers. Brooklyn Law Review, 68, 1121-1158.

  • Rural Poverty in Latin America: Determinants and Exit Paths

    de Janvry, A.; Sadoulet, E. “Rural Poverty in Latin America: Determinants and Exit Paths.” In: Mathur, S.; Pachico, D. Agricultural research and poverty reduction: Some issues and evidence”. Economics and Impact Series 2. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia. p. 105-130. 2003.

  • Is the Addiction Concept Useful for Drug Policy?

    MacCoun, R. J. (2003). Is the addiction concept useful for drug policy? In R. Vuchinich & N. Heather (eds.), Choice, behavioural economics and addiction. Oxford UK: Elsevier Science.

  • En busqueda del exito de las Politicas de Desarollo Rural, Implementation de una Vision Integral

    de Janvry, Alain and Elisabeth Sadoulet. “En busqueda del exito de las Politicas de Desarollo Rural, Implementation de una Vision Integral.” In Ramos, Alvaro, ed. Desarollo Rural Sostenible con Enfoque territorial: Politicas y Estrategias para Uruguay . Montevideo: IICA. 2003.

  • O cannabis! Pot decriminalization in Canada highlights America’s isolation.

    MacCoun, R. (2003, 11 June). O cannabis! Pot decriminalization in Canada highlights America's isolation. San Francisco Chronicle, A27.