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Selected Publications

  • Political conservatism as motivated social cognition

    Jost, J. T., Glaser, J., Sulloway, F., & Kruglanski, A.W. (2003).  Political conservatism as motivated social cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 339-375.

    Analyzing political conservatism as motivated social cognition integrates theories of personality (authoritarianism, dogmatism–intolerance of ambiguity), epistemic and existential needs (for closure,
    regulatory focus, terror management), and ideological rationalization (social dominance, system justification). A meta-analysis (88 samples, 12 countries, 22,818 cases) confirms that several psychological
    variables predict political conservatism: death anxiety (weighted mean r  .50); system instability (.47);
    dogmatism–intolerance of ambiguity (.34); openness to experience (–.32); uncertainty tolerance (–.27);
    needs for order, structure, and closure (.26); integrative complexity (–.20); fear of threat and loss (.18);
    and self-esteem (–.09). The core ideology of conservatism stresses resistance to change and justification
    of inequality and is motivated by needs that vary situationally and dispositionally to manage uncertainty
    and threat.

  • Comments on Chaloupka, Emery, and Laing

    MacCoun, R. J. (2003). Comments on Chaloupka, Emery, and Laing. In R. Vuchinich & N. Heather (eds.), Choice, behavioural economics and addiction. Oxford UK: Elsevier Science.

  • Some Evidence on Race, Welfare Reform and Household Income

    “Some Evidence on Race, Welfare Reform and Household Income,” American Economic Review, Volume 93, Number 2, pp. 293-298, May 2003 (with Marianne Bitler and Jonah Gelbach).

  • Contingent Valuation and Lost Passive Use: Damages from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Carson, R.T., et al. 2003.  “Contingent Valuation and Lost Passive Use: Damage from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill,”  Environmental and Resource Economics 25: 257-286.

    We report on the results of a large-scale contingent valuation (CV) study conducted after
    the Exxon Valdez oil spill to assess the harm caused by it. Among the issues considered are the design
    features of the CV survey, its administration to a national sample of U.S. households, estimation of
    household willingness to pay to prevent another Exxon Valdez type oil spill, and issues related to
    reliability and validity of the estimates obtained. Events influenced by the study's release are also
    briefly discussed.

  • Shakespeare, Einstein, and the Bottom Line: The Marketing of Higher Education

    Kirp, David L. Shakespeare, Einstein, and the Bottom Line: The Marketing of Higher Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2003.

  • How Improved Natural Resource Management in Agriculture Promotes the Livestock Economy in the Sahel

    Dutilly-Diane, Celine, Elisabeth Sadoulet and Alain de Janvry. “How Improved Natural Resource Management in Agriculture Promotes the Livestock Economy in the Sahel” Journal of African Economies, 2003(12): 343-370.

    Improved water harvesting and soil erosion control using the remarkably simple practice of contour stone bunding is shown to increase grain yields by 41% in low rainfall regions of Burkina Faso. Empirical results show that yield increases in food crops help foodbuying farm households import substitute in food consumption, reduce livestock production, and increase seasonal migration which is more compatible with seasonal agriculture than with the yearlong livestock activity. Self-sufficient households, by contrast, can take advantage of higher yields to free resources from food production and allocate these to expand their livestock economy, thus benefiting more from the region’s comparative advantage. We also show that greater effectiveness in cooperation in the management of common property resources helps increase income derived from livestock for all categories of households. However, not all forms of cooperation are effective. When cooperation is only formal, individual activities such as crops, non-agricultural employment, and seasonal migration are pursued as opposed to livestock activities that rely on effective community management of common property resources.

  • Re-Crafting Rights over Common Property Resources in Mexico

    Munoz-Pina Carlos, Alain de Janvry, and Elisabeth Sadoulet. “Re-Crafting Rights over Common Property Resources in Mexico” Economic Development and Cultural Change, 2 (1): 129-158 (2003).

  • A Regional Approach to Setting Research Priorities and Implementation: Towards Satisfying National,

    Janssen, Willem, Amir Kassam, and Alain de Janvry. 2003. “A Regional Approach to Setting Research Priorities and Implementation: Towards Satisfying National, regional, and Global Concerns”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Information 5(2): 67-100.

    Regionalization of agricultural research across countries has received considerable attention in recent years, with the establishment of regional and sub-regional organizations in most regions. Recently, the CGIAR System has called for a regional approach to research involving bottom-up priority-setting and implementation, and integrating this with global priority-setting. This paper explores the possibility of developing an approach for research priority-setting that would satisfy national, regional and global expectations of regionalization and allow the regional and sub-regional organizations to assume a bigger role. The paper also considers how the CGIAR Centres may support this priority-setting process and how they may use it to define their regional activities. A review of existing regional research initiatives show the many models in use, with different extents of collaboration, and with different challenges and promises. Regional priorities can strengthen the relevance of agricultural research in a region or sub-region. A description of a relatively generic approach to establishing regional priorities is presented. Different research organizations that are present in a region can use the research priorities to enable their work, and it is possible for CGIAR Centres to participate in the regional agenda while respecting the global nature of the CGIAR System. The integration of regional priorities into the CGIAR global research agenda is an area where there is little experience in the CGIAR System. The challenge for the CGIAR is to determine how to maintain a global focus in its agenda while promoting a coordinated regional approach to research planning and implementation. Priority-setting in the CGIAR will become even more of an ongoing process while the bottom-up regional approach to research planning, priority-setting and implementation is established in all regions.