Selected Publications

The Occupational Transformation of the Mental Health System

Scheffler, R., and P. Kirby. “The Occupational Transformation of the Mental Health System.” Health Affairs 22.5 (Sep. 2003): 177-188.


The mental health workforce has changed dramatically since the mid-1970s. Nonphysician providers, particularly psychologists and clinical social workers, have become a much larger share of the workforce. While the supply of psychiatrists has been relatively stable, there has been a dramatic increase in the supply of psychologists and social workers. Changes in clinical practice, combined with the continued expansion of managed care into mental health, will largely determine the future composition and supply of the mental health workforce.

Download File

Download a PDF (138KB)